C. 2000 Abram the Patriarch travels from the City of Ur in Mesopotamia to the plain of Mamre.
C. 2000-1700 Descendants of Abraham live as pastoral nomads utilizing the area for their livestock and farming and extensive trade.
C. 1700 Joseph is sold into slavery by his brethren to the Ishmaelites and is taken to Egypt where he is then bought by Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh. Later he is appointed chief over all of Mizraim as Administrator and is given the name of Zaph'nath-pa-a-ne'ah and marries the daughter of the high priest of On.
Joseph then brings his family to Goshen during a horrible famine and drought where they settle peacefully.
C. 1700-1290 Hebrews prosper in Egypt and eventually are forced into slavery. During these troublesome times, a decree from Pharaoh is sent out to kill all all the Hebrew children as it was believed that a deliverer of the people was soon to be born as predicted by the priests.
It is at this time during this great oppression that Moses is born to Amram and Jochebed and he is hidden for three months, at which time he is put in an ark made of bullrushes and placed in the Nile River by his mother in order to save his life.
The young infant is quickly found and adopted by Thermuthis, the daughter of Pharaoh. The youth begins being educated by the scribes and royal teachers and is acknowledged as the heir to the throne of Egypt and is accepted as a member of the royal family.
At this time Ethiopia begins intruding into Egypt and begins conquering cities including Memphis and taking the spoils to enlarge their borders. The Egyptians, fearing the end of their Nation, seeks out the son of Amram to become General of the army which he undertakes.
Moshe begins a campaign against the Ethiopians and besieges the Royal City of Saba.
Upon arrival of the army, the daughter of the Monarch named Tharbis witnesses Moshe and his army near the walls of the city and falls deeply in love with him, and as a result she then offers her hand in marriage. At this time he agrees to accept her proposal on the condition that she relinquish control of the city to him - which she does and becomes his wife and the Egyptians withdrawal back to their homes.
Around 40 years of age, he then flees Egypt after killing an overseer who he spied smiting one of his people and crosses the desert in exile. He later marries the daughter of Jethro priest of Median. During this time while tending to Jethro's flocks of sheep, he in fact encounters the burning bush.
C. 1290 - 1250 Moshe leads the people out of bondage in Egypt where the people wander in the wilderness for 40 years at which time they receive the Ten Commandments.
C. 1250-1225 Joshua son of Nun leads the tribes over Jordan and begins to conquer their enemies after the death of the prophet.
C. 1225-1020 During these important years, the tribes are ruled by judges and are involved in numerous battles and wars with enemies.
C. 1020 Samuel anoints King Saul as the tribes establish a monarchy as a way to unite the people and resist the expansion of the Philistines.
C. 1004 After being terribly wounded by being shot with arrows by enemy archers, the son of Kish falls on his sword during a battle with the Philistines after witnessing the death of his children during a heated battle. During these troublesome times the tribes of north and south become disunited.
C. 998 David becomes ruler of the divided tribes after a civil war. The Philistines are then defeated numerous times and Jerusalem becomes the Capital with the boundaries being greatly extended.
C. 965-926 Solomon reigns after the death of his father David, and then builds the Temple in Jerusalem. Trade and commerce explode during an excellent time of prosperity.
C. 926 Rehoboam succeeds his father Solomon. Northern tribes, outraged by his rule, secede from him. During these times the southern tribes then are called by the name of Judah.
C. 734 Northern tribes make war against Judah while refusing to join in unity against Assyria.
733-732 Assyria defeats the northern tribes and reduces the people into vassals for the Assyrian empire.
721 Northern tribes, in defiance of Assyrian rule, result in Samaria being sacked and overrun. As a result the majority of the population is then deported throughout the Middle East in locations called Halah and Habor near the river called Gozan, and many families are then settled in cities of the Medes.
598 Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon besieges Jerusalem and conquers Judah.
586 After three years, Jehoiakim of Judah rebels against Babylon and refuses to pay tribute and taxes. Nebuchadnezzar, outraged at his refusal to obey, once again attacks Judah, destroys Jerusalem and the Holy Temple, and carries off most of the population to Babylon.
C. 538 Cyrus the Great of the Persian Empire conquers Babylon and grants over 40,000 Jews permission to return to Jerusalem and to rebuild the Temple.
C. 525 Syrian opposition arises during the reign of Artaxerxes that results in a letter being sent to Persia by Re'hum and Shim'shai and their companions to search the rolls and confirm that Jerusalem was a rebellious and bad city and that they would not pay toll tribute and custom and that they would damage the revenues. As a result of this, Artaxerxes searches the archves and found that the city of old time had made insurrection and rebellion in the past and so he quickly orders all work on the temple to be abandoned.
During this time, great trouble was forced upon the people which years later resulted in a letter being sent to Persia by Tatnai the Governor, She'tharboz'nai and their companions the Aphar'sachites in the second year of King Darius to search the rolls for confirmation that the people of Jerusalem had indeed been given permission to build the temple by order of Cyrus.
520 Darius issues a royal decree to search the rolls which are quickly located and he issues a decree to return all the gold and silver vessels taken by Nebuchadnezzar from the Temple to be returned to Jerusalem, and commands that the Second Temple be built out of his own personal expenses of his house and to supply all of the bulls, rams and lambs needed for offerings with a special instruction to pray for the life of himself and his sons.
517 The Holy Temple at Jerusalem is completed.
334-331 Alexander the Great marches through the Middle East conquering all whom oppose his rule. After his death, Judah is then claimed by the Greco-Egyptian despot founded by one of his four generals.
198 Judah is forced under the rule of the Seleucids located in Syria.
168 Antiochus Epiphanes of Syria defiles the Temple at Jerusalem and converts it into a pagan place of worship. He kills many innocent Jews in an attempt to destroy their way of life, and demanded that they worship him.
167-164 Many people revolt against the rule of Antiochus and are led by Judah Maccabee otherwise known as the Hammerer. He liberates Jerusalem from Syrian rule and the Temple is cleansed and re-dedicated.
163-160 The people are ruled by the kinsmen of Judah Maccabee.
63 Rome takes control of Judah.
40 Herod the Great becomes ruler under the sponsorship of Rome.
C. 33 Jesus of Nazareth is Crucified at Golgotha.
66-70 The people Revolt against Roman rule under Titus. Rome recaptures and destroys Jerusalem
132-135 Shimon Bar-Kochba leads a rebellion against Rome which is crushed. Jerusalem is then renamed Aelia Capitolina in honor of the emperor and Jews are prohibited from entering the city.
In the centuries that follow, Palestine as the region became to be called is fought over and controlled by many invaders. The population dwindles and the Hebrews are dispersed throughout the four corners of the world.
1882 Dr. Leon Pinsker writes a book titled Auto-Emancipation that urges the creation of a Jewish National Home. During this time several thousand Jews immigrate to Palestine. This becomes known as the First Aliyah.
1896 Theodor Herzl who is a journalist, publishes "The Jewish State" urging the establishment of a state by international agreement.
1897 First Zionist Congress held in Basle.
1903 Anti-Semitic violence in Russia encourages interest in the settlement of Palestine by the Hebrew People.
1904-1914 Many immigrants head to Palestine and begin establishing agriculture in the area. This becomes known as the Second Aliyah.
1917 Year of the Balfour Declaration, with Great Britain announcing it supports the establishment of a national home for Jews in Palestine.
1923 The League of Nations gives Britain a mandate to govern Palestine.
1933 In Germany, the Nazi party comes into power which inspires many people to attempt to immigrate to Palestine.
1936 Arabs begin massive riots against Jews in Palestine.
1939 British White Paper is published which restricts immigration and property purchases in Palestine. World War II begins which results in the genocide of millions of Jews and becomes known as the Holocaust.
1945 Displaced people are now prohibited from entering Palestine. Militia known as the Haganah assists many.
1947 Great Britain asks for help in Palestine from the UN which decided to partition the province into two states. The plan is opposed by Arabs and violence breaks out in the region.
1948 British withdrawal and Jewish leaders proclaim the republic. Egypt, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon and Trans-Jordan invade the new nation.
1949 Armistice agreements are signed between the new government and the Arab States. Chaim Weizmann is elected President with David Ben-Gurion as Prime Minister.
1949 - 1953 The new government quickly demands reparations from Germany for the theft and murders forced upon the people during WWII. An agreement was then signed by West Germany and the value of $822 million was paid in items such as machinery, ships, stock, raw materials which were then shipped to the region via railroad trains. Many riots take place during these shipments as some folks resented accepting anything at all from Germany.
1956 - 1957 Egypt prevents ships from from entering the Gulf of Eilat in late October which results in the new state attacking Egypt; this has become known as the Sinai Campaign. Within eight days, Nasser's forces surrender at Sharm el Sheik. The UN demands a withdrawal and ceasefire.
1967 Arab States attack during Yom Kippur, all of whom are defeated in six days which results in occupation of territory taken during this war.
1979 Peace Treaty is signed with Egypt.
1982 Military units are removed from the Sinai.
1993 Oslo Accords signed with Palestinians.
1994 Peace treaty with Jordan is signed.
2000 Military withdrawl from Southern Lebanon ends 18 years of occupation that had been undertaken in 1982.
2003 President Bush, with international allies, lays out the "Roadmap to Peace".
2003-2005 Palestinian violence erupts in the region.
2005 In February, a cease-fire agreement with Palestinians is reached at Sharm el-Sheikh.
2006 Hamas is elected to Palestinian Legislative Council and freezes relations. The kidnapping of two soldiers by Lebanese Hizballah results in a 34 day conflict with Lebanon in June-August.